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Radio Propagation for Modern Wireless Systems by Henry L. Bertoni

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Chapter 2Survey of Observed Characteristics of the Propagation Channel

The original development of cellular mobile radio (CMR) required knowledge of 450-to-900 MHz radio propagation between elevated base station antennas and subscribers located at ground or street level. In cities, the base station antennas are placed above the surrounding buildings but not usually on the tallest buildings. The subscribers are located among the buildings, which shadow them from the base station, except on streets aligned with the base station or when no buildings are present for a few blocks in front of the subscriber. Extensive measurements were made using continuous-wave (CW) or narrowband signals to determine the propagation characteristics to shadowed subscribers ...

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