Just as important as the factors that motivate are the factors that demotivate. In the 1960s, Fred Herzberg conducted research that identified two kinds of motivators (Herzberg 1987). He differentiated between motivating factors ("satisfiers"), which stimulate performance when they are present, and hygiene factors ("dissatisfiers"), which degrade performance when they are absent. This section identifies hygiene factors and other morale killers.
Hygiene factors are the basic conditions a worker needs to work effectively. At best, hygiene factors create no dissatisfaction. At worst, their absence creates dissatisfaction. Adequate lighting is a hygiene factor because if adequate lighting is not present, the worker's ability ...