So far in this chapter, we've discussed the technical categorization of shots, touching only briefly on how you might use them to tell stories. Now let's look at shots from a functional point of view.
Certain kinds of shots and combinations of shots have become filmmaking traditions (or clichés): the flattering closeup shot with a telephoto lens at neutral angle, for example, or the scene-opening combo of long-shot, medium-shot, closeup. But you don't have to be constrained by those choices just because they are mainstays of both talented directors and studio hacks.
In fact, you can apply any set of technical choices we've discussed to any of the following storytelling functions.
An establishing ...