relative loudness
decibel scale, 22–23
digital audio, 24–25
scale uses, 23
timbre, 25–26
release
compressors, 229
envelope shapers, 237
limiters, 230
noise gates, 233
rendering, printed scores, 484–486
resolution, 40
resonance, 215
resonance versus equalization, 217
resources
cables, 90
Linux, 58
MIDI, 298
Soundware, 347
treatments, 84
reverb
signal processors, 197
tail, 243
time-related effects, 242
conventional, 243–244
convolution, 244–246
reverse, signal processors, 197, 203
ReWire, 113
live performance synchronization, 540–543
REX files, 130, 132
ribbon microphones, 168
Ribbon Mics Web site, 161
Rideout, Ernie, Keyboard, 344
ring modulation
Ableton Live, 255–256
SoundSchool Analog, 376–378
rings, plugs, 89
RME Web site, 91
Roads, Curtis, The Computer Music Tutorial,
342, 394
Robertson, Ed, 146
Robinson, Tom, 146
Rodemic Web site, 161
Roland
GI-20, 275
GK-3, 275
V-Drum, 279
Web site, 77, 279
rolloffs, 214
Rosegarden Web site, 58
routing, synthesis modulation, 387–388
Royer Labs Web site, 161
S
S/PDIF
input, 96
protocol, 99
Sam Ash, Web site, 78
samplers
drums, live performances, 555–556
synthesis, 340–341, 345
Ableton Live, 357–359
drum kit mapping, 349–351
effects, 356
filters, 356
Impulse, 359–360
loop and start points, 351–353
mapping to keys, 347–349
modulation, 356
RAM versus hard-disk streaming, 356
Soundware Libraries, 346–347
velocity cross-switching, 353–354
SampleTank2 Free, 282, 336
hands-on exercises, 291–292, 298–300
sampling, 33
digital quality
bit depth, 38
common frequencies and bits depths, 39–40
frequency range, 35–37
rate, 35–37
editing, 65
general-purpose, 186
instrument digital recording, 190
live performances, 557–560
rate, 35
Samson Web site, 77
saving, demo applications, xvi
605
I
NDEX
sawtooth waves, 366, 389–390
saxophones, microphone recording, 184
Scala, 335
scales, uses, 23
scanning, notation software, 473–475
scores, 457
notation software
assembling score, 475–479
basics, 458–461
DAWs versus dedicated notation, 462–463
note entering, 465–475
quick-start features, 464–465
templates, 464–465
page layout, 479–481
parts, 481–483
rendering, 484–486
sharing
audio, 488
e-commerce, 488–489
MIDI, 488
MusicXML, 490
PDFs, 487–488
Web publishing, 488–489
writing production tools, 69
scratching, DJing, 566–567
alternative hardware, 571–572
connecting turntables, 567–568
controlling computers, 568–571
screens, computer configuration, 61
Sculpture, physical modeling, 343
Security Center, 128
semi parametric equalization, 219
semitones, pitch, 21–22
send effects, signal processors, 197
Sennheiser
MZP 40, 176
Web site, 49, 161
sequencers
MIDI, 268
production tools, 64–65
serial number authorization, software copy
protection, 118
shapes
envelopes, 370–371
wave. See waveshapes
sharing
mixdowns
CDs, 446–449
DVDs, 449–450
full projects, 454–456
online distribution, 450–454
music, iTunes, 145–146
printed scores
audio, 488
e-commerce, 488–489
MIDI, 488
MusicXML, 490
PDFs, 487–488
Web publishing, 488–489
shelving equalization, 215–216
shopping, tools, 78–80
shotgun, mic patterns, 162
Shure
Green Bullet, 186
KSM-32, 160
SM-58, 160
Web site, 49, 161
Sibelius, 69. See also notation software
Educational Suite, 73
Web site, 73
sibilance, vocal recording, 175
side-chaining, real-time processors, 209–210
signal processors, 195
Ableton Live
dynamic processor, 238–239
equalization, 225–228
insert effects, 210–211
modulated filter, 253–259
send effects, 211–212
basics, 196
destructive versus nondestructive editing,
197–199
distortion, 247–248
digital, 249–250
general effects, 248–249
606
I
NDEX
modulation, 250–253
noise reduction, 261–262
pitch correction, 259–261
utilities, 262–264
DSP (Digital Signal Processing), 196–197
dynamic
combining, 234–236
compressors, 228–230
envelope followers, 236
envelope shapers, 236–238
expanders, 231–232
limiters, 230–231
noise gates, 233–234
equalization, 212–213
filter tools, 218–224
highpass, 214–215
lowpass, 214–215
peaking filter, 216–217
shelving, 215–216
mixing, 418
non-realtime effects
fades, 200
normalization, 201–202
pitch, 200–201
reverse, 203
speed, 200–201
tempo, 200–201
production tools, 67
real-time effects, 203–204
busing, 206–209
channels, 204–205
inserts, 205
side-chaining, 209–210
time-related effects
delays, 240–241
echo, 240–241
reverb, 242–246
signal-to-noise ratio, 38
simple recording, instrument recording, 190
sine waves, 364–365
basics, 8–9
overtones, 9–11
phases, 12–13
synthesis modulation, 389
wave interference, 13–15
slates, video recording timing, 509–510
sleeves, plugs, 89
slices
arranging, 400–401
automatic beat detection, 401–403
warping, 403–405
beats, 402
small-diaphragm microphones, 166
SmartLoops Web site, 130, 134
SMF (Standard MIDI File), 472–473
SMPTE timecode, 500, 512
snap to grid, 408–409
snares, drum kit setup, 181
Snoize Web site, 286
software, 61
building studio, 74–75
computer interfaces, 53
copy protection methods, 118–119
digital sound, 27–29
DJing, 562–564
cueing and pitch controls, 564–565
headphone cueing, 565–566
managing files, 564
hardware connections, 77
instruments, synthesis. See synthesis
microphone instrument recording, 190–193
notation
assembling score, 475–479
basics, 458–461
DAWs versus dedicated notation, 462–463
note entering, 465–475
production tools, 69
quick-start features, 464–465
templates, 464–465
selection, 79–80
video synchronization, 493–495
SONAR, 71, 399, 402, 416. See also Cakewalk
songs, patterns and loops, 129
backing track, 133–147
formats, 132
groove box, 147–157
musical uses, 133
pitch and tempo independence, 131
recognizing, 130
The Sonic Spot Web site, 44
607
I
NDEX
Sony
ACID, 132, 135
Acid Pro Web site, 28
Music Acid, 66
Oxford Collection, 67
Sonic Foundry, 65
Sound Forge, 65
Web site, 49
sound, 1. See also digital sound
basics, 2–5
dimensions, 5–7
sine waves, 8–15
digital form
analog audio, 31–32
digital audio, 32–35
file formats, 40–42
MIDI, 42–44
quality, 35–40
transducers, 30
libraries, 341
perception, 15
hearing pitch, 16–22
relative loudness, 22–26
software, 27–29
speed, 7
waves, 2
pressure levels, 22
psychoacoustics, 4, 15. See also perception
treatments, 82–84
Sound for Digital Video, 521
Sound for Film and Television, 521
Sound on Sound, 52
SoundFonts Web site, 487
soundholes, piano, 177
soundproofing, 82
SoundSchool Analog
hands-on exercises, 362–363
Soundtrack, 66
Loop Utility, 132
Pro, 8
Soundtrek, Web site, 73
Soundware Libraries, sampler synthesis, 346–347
soundwaves, 341
spaces, mixing, 418
spacing, notation software, 459
spatialization, mixing, 420–421
delivering surround sound, 427–429
stereo sound, 421–424
surround sound, 424–427
speakers
placement principles, 84–86
terminals, 89
spectral processing, FFT (Fast Fourier Trans-
forms), 246
spectrum, 26
speed
CPU, 60
hard drives, 60
modulation, 251
signal processors, 200
sound, 7
splits, MIDI, 307
spotting, 502–503
square waves, 368–369
stand-alone software, 74
Standard MIDI File (SMF), 472–473
Stanton Web site, 77
startup disks, storage maintenance, 121
Steinberg
ASIO, 106
Cubase, DAW (Digital Audio Workstation), 71
Cubase SX, 64, 463
V-STACK, 530
VST System Link, 546
WaveLab, 68
Web site, 54
step entries, MIDI, 308
step filters, 223–224
stereo
channels, 87
delay, time-related effects, 240
imaging, 442
microphones, 172
plugs, 89
spatialization mixing, 421–424
width, modulation, 251
stopbands, 214
storage, maintenance, 121–123
608
I
NDEX

Get Real World Digital Audio now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.