In the early 1970s, the real world of training included minimum evaluation. Donald Kirkpatrick completed his doctoral dissertation in the 1950s, bringing a concept of four steps to training evaluation to the field. While an interesting concept, it was missing a model and set of standards to support replication and scalability over time. At the time, organizations collected data at the reaction and learning levels, with minimal, if any, data collection occurring at the application and impact levels. Return on investment (ROI) was not even a twinkle in the eyes of learning professionals.

Then in 1972 Jack Phillips brought the real world of business to the training profession. In response to a senior executive’s request to demonstrate the ...

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