This chapter portrays the range of risks confronting stakeholders to REDD. It considers risks from the perspective of action or inaction.
The nature of the risks
REDD faces risks both upstream and downstream. Upstream risks pertain to how avoided deforestation through REDD approaches is addressed. Downstream risks pertain to the verifiability of what has been accomplished, including costs incurred, to enable carbon asset permanence and leakage to be verified.
Risks in REDD can be analyzed in terms of both commission and omission. These pertain to addressing deforestation as a subset of climate change issues. They also pertain to the manner in which deforestation is attempted to be mitigated.
If REDD is poorly designed, ...