Chapter 22Epilogue: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership

We first introduced the four frames as a way to better understand organizations and leadership in Modern Approaches to Understanding and Managing Organizations in 1984 (Bolman and Deal, 1984). A pretty good book with a pretty bad title. Much has happened in the years since. Noteworthy is a better title. But much more. Prominent corporations have disappeared; new ones have arisen to take their place. We wrote the first book using pen on paper and a primitive early personal computer, in a time before cell phones, the Internet, or female CEOs in Fortune 500 companies.


Since then, we have gained more confidence in our framework. Thousands of readers and students throughout the world have ...

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