Chapter 8

Packaging Materials, Processes, and Stresses

Abstract

As R.E. Gomory of IBM has so aptly noted, “Far from being passive containers for microelectronic devices, the packages in today's advanced computers pose at least as many engineering challenges as the chips that they interconnect, power, and cool.” This is not an idle exaggeration, because packaging technology encompasses an integrated bundle of interdisciplinary concerns. It requires the expertise of scientists as well as mechanical, electrical, chemical, and materials engineers engaged in processing and assembling a host of different materials for a variety of functions. At least three levels of packaging architecture are required to interconnect, power, distribute signals, and cool ...

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