vii
Contents
Preface .............................................................................................. xv
Where We Are and How We Got Here .................................................. xv
The Change We Need Now .................................................................... xvi
Acknowledgments .......................................................................... xix
Introduction ................................................................................... xxi
About the Author ............................................................................xxv
1 Deming Got It Right ....................................................................1
Introduction .................................................................................................1
Point 1: Management Must Have “Constancy of Purpose” to Stay
in Business ..................................................................................................4
Point 2: Adopt the New Philosophy ...........................................................4
Point 3: Cease Dependence on Mass Inspection .......................................5
Point 4: Stop Doing Business with the Low Bidder ..................................5
Point 5: Find Problems ................................................................................5
Point 6: Institute Modern Training Methods ..............................................5
Point 7: Institute Modern Methods of Supervision ....................................6
Point 8: Drive Out Fear ...............................................................................6
Point 9: Break Down Barriers between Departments ...............................6
Point 10: Eliminate Goals, Posters, and Slogans Directed at Workers
to Do More ..................................................................................................7
Point 11: Eliminate Numerical Quotas .......................................................7
Point 12: Remove the Barriers That Keep People from Taking Pride
in Their Work ..............................................................................................7
Point 13: Institute Vigorous Education and Retraining ..............................8
Point 14: Top Management Must “Push” (Measure and Report)
Every Day on the Above 13 Points ............................................................8
The Vision ...................................................................................................8
Reducing Variability Is the Key ................................................................10
viii ◾  Contents
2 Removing Barriers in the Workplace.........................................13
Introduction ............................................................................................... 13
Order and Cleanliness ..............................................................................14
Getting Started ..........................................................................................14
Ergonomics Are Economical .....................................................................15
Employee Facilities Show You Care (or Not) ...........................................16
Making Safety Equal to Everything Else ..................................................16
Establishing Minimum Standards .............................................................17
Other Safety Requirements .......................................................................18
Summary ...................................................................................................19
3 Removing the Equipment Reliability Barrier with Effective
Maintenance ............................................................................... 21
Introduction ............................................................................................... 21
Preventive Maintenance ............................................................................22
Predictive Maintenance .............................................................................23
Vibration Analysis ..............................................................................24
Dynamic Balancing ...........................................................................25
Laser Alignment .................................................................................25
Ultrasonic Leak Detection .................................................................25
Infrared Imaging ...............................................................................26
Motor Analysis ...................................................................................26
Oil Analysis .......................................................................................26
PdM Summary ...................................................................................27
Total Productive Maintenance ..................................................................27
The Maintenance Process .........................................................................28
Work Orders ......................................................................................28
Estimating ..........................................................................................29
Maintenance Planning .......................................................................30
Work Order Scheduling and Priorities ..............................................31
Work Order Completion: Getting the Feedback ..............................32
Maintenance History .........................................................................33
Spare Parts Management: Keeping Parts Visible ..............................34
Stores Inventory Benchmarks ................................................................... 35
Computerized Maintenance Management System ...................................35
The Human Factor ....................................................................................36
Maintenance Performance Benchmarks ...................................................38
Putting It All Together...............................................................................38
Contents ◾  ix
4 Removing the Process Variability Barrier with Automatic
Control Systems .........................................................................41
Introduction ............................................................................................... 41
Getting Started ..........................................................................................43
A Few Real-Life Examples ........................................................................45
Conclusion ................................................................................................. 49
5 Removing the Product Variability Barrier with Statistical
Process Controls ........................................................................51
Introduction ...............................................................................................51
Sampled Data versus Continuous Monitoring ..........................................52
The Tools ...................................................................................................53
Prework .....................................................................................................54
A Word of Caution about Sampling .........................................................55
Getting Started ..........................................................................................55
SPC Tool 1: X-Bar and R Charts ........................................................ 56
SPC Tool 2: Histogram ......................................................................57
SPC Tool 3: Pareto Diagram .............................................................. 57
SPC Tool 4: Control Charts ...............................................................58
SPC Tool 5: Fishbone Diagrams ........................................................59
SPC Tool 6: Flow Chart .....................................................................60
The X-Bar and Sigma Charting Marches On ............................................ 60
Advanced SPC Tools for Digging Deeper ................................................61
SPC Tool 7: Process Capability Study ...............................................61
SPC Tool 8: Designed Experiments ..................................................61
SPC Tool 9: Scatter Diagram .............................................................62
Summary ...................................................................................................62
6 Removing the Raw Material Quality Barrier .............................65
Introduction ............................................................................................... 65
7 SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) .....................................69
Introduction ............................................................................................... 69
The Vision .................................................................................................69
Getting Started ..........................................................................................70
Step 1: Render the Process Safe ........................................................70
Step 2: Clean the Process ..................................................................71
Step 3: Change Machine Settings ...................................................... 71
Step 4: Changing Components .........................................................72
x ◾  Contents
Step 5: Changing Out Raw Materials and Supplies .......................... 73
Step 6: Additional Sampling .............................................................. 73
Step 7: Final Adjustments and Centerlining......................................74
The SMED Process .................................................................................... 74
Back to the Vision ..................................................................................... 78
Summary ...................................................................................................78
8 The Process Control Manual ...................................................... 81
Introduction ............................................................................................... 81
Products Produced ....................................................................................82
Product Specications ............................................................................... 83
Process Description ...................................................................................83
Process Diagrams ...................................................................................... 83
Raw Materials Used ...................................................................................84
Authorized Operating Supplies ................................................................85
Detailed Operating Procedures ................................................................86
SMED Procedures......................................................................................87
Process Reading Sheet ..............................................................................87
Required Tools ..........................................................................................89
General Safety Procedures ........................................................................ 89
Locking and Tagging Procedures .............................................................89
Housekeeping Checklist ...........................................................................90
Statistical Process Control .........................................................................91
Product Sampling ..............................................................................91
Product Evaluation ............................................................................92
Control Charting ................................................................................92
Definition of “In Statistical Control” .......................................... 92
Real Purpose of Control Charts ................................................93
Back to the Process Control Manual ................................................93
Product Attributes .....................................................................................97
Summary ...................................................................................................97
9 Training and Retraining ............................................................99
Introduction ...............................................................................................99
Assessing Basic Skills ................................................................................99
The Training Begins ...............................................................................101
Verication of Training ...........................................................................102
Retraining ................................................................................................102
Annual Recertification .............................................................................103
Summary .................................................................................................104
Contents ◾  xi
10 Selected Topics on Working with People ................................. 105
Introduction .............................................................................................105
Topic 1: Driving out Fear ........................................................................106
Topic 2: Promotions (No Good Deed Goes Unpunished) ....................108
The Selection Process......................................................................108
After the Promotion ........................................................................ 110
Topic 3: Pay Systems ............................................................................... 111
Pay According to Job Position .........................................................112
Single Pay Rate ................................................................................112
Motivating Employees with Pay (Not) ............................................113
Topic 4: Customer Service ...................................................................... 114
Topic 6: Uplifting Performance Reviews ................................................ 116
Topic 7: Your Employees Do Not Have to Be Superstars ...................... 118
Topic 8: Nonpunitive Discipline—The Last Resort ................................ 119
Coaching Session with Informal Note to File .................................120
Second Coaching Session with Official Note to File ......................121
One Day on Paid Leave for Employee to Develop Action Plan ....122
When All Else Fails: Termination ...................................................122
Conclusion .......................................................................................123
Closing Comments ..................................................................................123
11 Some Pointers on Working with Unions ..................................125
12 Organizing for Success ............................................................129
Introduction .............................................................................................129
The Interdisciplinary Team Concept ......................................................130
The Multidisciplinary Team Concept .....................................................130
The Three Manufacturing Functions ......................................................133
Function 1: Operations....................................................................133
Operations Managers ...............................................................133
Operations Crew Leaders ........................................................ 133
Operators .................................................................................134
Function 2: Process Engineering ....................................................134
Process Engineering Manager .................................................134
Process Engineers .................................................................... 135
Quality Assurance....................................................................135
Function 3: Reliability......................................................................136
Reliability Manager ..................................................................137
Reliability Engineers ................................................................137

Get Removing the Barriers to Efficient Manufacturing now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from nearly 200 publishers.