10Opportunity and Challenges in Biofuel Productions through Solar Thermal Technologies

Praveen Kumar Ghodke1*, Cecil Antony2 and Amit Kumar Sharma3

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode, Kerala, India

2 School of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode, Kerala – 673601, India

3 Department of Chemistry and Centre for Alternate Energy Research, R&D, University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India


The study examines the production, improvement, and application of solar-powered pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, charcoal, and pyrolytic gas. Scattered literature on solar thermochemical pyrolysis of various types of biomass was evaluated holistically and consolidated for a better understanding. Reaction temperature, heating rate, biomass particle size, and biomass type are the primary factors influencing higher pyrolysis product yield. All three products (bio-oil, biochar, and pyrolytic gas) could be used as fuel candidates in various industries, such as transportation and industrial heating. The study found that biomass-derived biooil needs to be improved before being used in compression ignition (CI) engines. On the other hand, the raw bio-oil might be utilized directly in industrial heating appliances like furnaces and steam generators.

Keywords: Solar thermochemical process, biomass, pyrolysis, bio-oil, product distribution

10.1 Introduction

Biomass still accounts ...

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