Bandwidth is allocated to a class of network traffic. The class of a packet is defined by some or all of the following factors:
IP source address
IP destination address
IP protocol (TCP, UDP, or other)
Source ports for TCP and UDP
Destination ports for TCP and UDP
Type of Service (ToS) value in the IP header
URL or URL group
Class definitions are hierarchical and every class has a parent. For example, if you define a class for FTP traffic and a class for FTP traffic to a host called pear, the classes are connected in a hierarchy as shown in FIGURE 9-1.
In this example, the ftp ...