Review Guide for the NABCEP Entry-Level Exam

Book description

The solar energy industry is growing and so is the demand for skilled and certified photovoltaic professionals. The NABCEP Entry-Level PV Exam ensures and reinforces that the professional has attained the basic knowledge of the fundamental concepts of PV system design, installation, and operation. Review Guide for the NABCEP Entry-Level Exam provides students with the information they need to successfully pass the exam. The organization of the text parallels that of the major exam sections and includes the essential concepts and principles that are covered on the exam. Review Guide for the NABCEP Entry-Level Exam is the stepping-stone resource for PV students to launch their career in the thriving photovoltaic industry. About the Series: The Photovoltaics (PV) industry stands on the brink of a revolution. The appeal of a new and growing industry has brought an influx of new PV professionals to the market, but the availability of educational resources has not kept pace with market demands. This gap has led to serious quality and performance issues that the industry will need to face in the decades ahead. The Art and Science of Photovoltaics series was developed to fill this education gap. Each book in the series goes beyond simple systematic processes by tackling performace challenges using a systems perspective. Readers do not learn PV design and installation steps in a vacuum; instead they gain the knowledge and expertise to understand interrelationships and discover new ways to improve their own systems and positively contribute to the industry. *NABCEP™ is a trademark exclusively owned and controlled by the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners, Inc. (NABCEP). NABCEP does not support, endorse, or have any type of affiliation with the author of this publication, and does not endorse or recommend this publication for any purpose, including preparation for NABCEP Certification Examinations.

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Brief Contents
  5. Contents (1/2)
  6. Contents (2/2)
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1 Introduction to the Photovoltaic Systems Entry-Level Exam
    1. The NABCEP PV Entry-Level and Installer Examination
      1. What to Expect on the Exam
      2. How to Study for the Exam
    2. History of Photovoltaics (PV)
    3. Common PV System Applications
      1. Standalone Systems
      2. Utility-Interactive Systems
    4. Features and Benefits of PV Systems
      1. Residential
      2. Commercial
      3. BIPV: Building-Integrated Photovoltaics
      4. Concentrating PV
      5. Utility Scale
    5. Advantages and Disadvantages of PV
    6. Independent PV Systems
    7. Interconnected PV Systems
    8. PV Industry Roles
      1. Semiconductor Solar Cell and Module Manufacturers and Vendors
      2. PV Equipment Manufacturers
      3. Balance-of-Systems (BOS) Manufacturers and Suppliers
      4. System Integrators, Packagers, and Installers
      5. Research and Development and Academic Institutions
      6. Industries and Organizations
      7. Energy Partners
    9. Market Indicators, Value Propositions, and Opportunities
      1. Grid-Tied
    10. Environmental Impacts of PV
    11. Chapter 1 Summary
    12. Key Concepts and Terms
    13. Chapter 1 Assessment
  9. Chapter 2 Safety Basics
    1. Safety Hazards
    2. OSHA Regulations
    3. Basic Electrical Safety
    4. Fall Protection
    5. Stairways and Ladders
      1. Stairways
      2. Ladders
    6. Hand and Power Tools
    7. Working Space for Electrical Spaces
      1. Clearance
      2. Attic Spaces
    8. Photovoltaic Modules
    9. Battery Safety
    10. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
    11. Chapter 2 Summary
    12. Key Concepts and Terms
    13. Chapter 2 Assessment
  10. Chapter 3 Electrical Basics
    1. Basic Electrical Parameters
      1. Electric Charge
      2. Current
      3. Voltage
      4. Power and Resistance
      5. Electrical Circuits
    2. Electrical Power vs. Energy
      1. Electrical Power
      2. Energy
    3. Common Electrical System Components
      1. Conductors
      2. Conduits, Raceways, and Enclosures
      3. Overcurrent Devices
      4. Diodes and Rectifiers
      5. Switchgear
      6. Transformers
      7. Terminals and Connectors
      8. Grounding Equipment
      9. Resistors
      10. Inductors
      11. Capacitors
    4. Electrical Test Equipment
    5. Ohm’s Law
    6. Fundamentals of Electric Utility System Operations
      1. Generation
      2. Transmission
      3. Distribution
      4. Typical Electrical Service Supplies
    7. Chapter 3 Summary
    8. Key Concepts and Terms
    9. Chapter 3 Assessment
  11. Chapter 4 Solar Energy Fundamentals
    1. Basic Solar Terminology
    2. The Sun’s Movement
      1. Solar Window
    3. The Sun’s Position
      1. Sun Path Diagramming
      2. Direct Solar Radiation
    4. Solar Irradiance vs. Solar Irradiation
      1. Peak Sun, Peak Sun Hours, and Insolation
    5. Factors That Impact PV Energy Collection
    6. Using a Standard Compass
    7. Effects of Changing Orientation
    8. Consequences of Array Shading
    9. Evaluating Solar Window Obstructions
    10. Spacing Distances
    11. Types of Solar Radiation and Their Effects on Solar Collectors
    12. Instruments for Measuring Solar Power and Energy
    13. Chapter 4 Summary
    14. Key Concepts and Terms
    15. Chapter 4 Assessment
  12. Chapter 5 PV Module Fundamentals
    1. Solar Cells
    2. PV Cells, Modules, Panels, and Arrays
      1. Cells
      2. Modules
      3. Strings
      4. Arrays
    3. Electrical Output Parameters for PV Modules
      1. Current-Voltage (I-V) Curve
      2. Maximum Power Point (Vmp and Imp)
      3. Open-Circuit Voltage (Voc)
      4. Short-Circuit Current (Isc)
      5. Pmp
    4. Effects of Varying Incident Solar Irradiance and Cell Temperature on Module Output
    5. Operating Point on the I-V Curve
    6. PV Modules as Battery Chargers
      1. Lead-Acid Batteries
      2. Alkaline Batteries
      3. Lithium Batteries
    7. Connecting Similar and Dissimilar PV Modules
    8. Performance Rating and Measurement Conditions
      1. Cell Material and Size
      2. Load Resistance
      3. Sunlight Intensity
      4. Cell Temperature
      5. Shading
    9. Module Measurement Conditions
    10. Solar-Cell Fabrication and Manufacturing Processes
      1. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
      2. Thin-Film Solar Cells vs. Crystalline Solar Cells
    11. Calculating Efficiency
    12. PV Modules and Limited Current Sources
    13. Bypass Diodes
    14. Testing to Ensure Safety and Reliability of PV Modules
    15. Chapter 5 Summary
    16. Key Concepts and Terms
    17. Chapter 5 Assessment
  13. Chapter 6 System Components
    1. Basic Types of PV Systems
      1. Standalone Systems
      2. Grid-Integrated Systems
      3. Grid Integrated with Battery Backup
    2. Principles of Operation for Major PV System Components
      1. Basic PV System Components
      2. PV Modules and Arrays
      3. Inverters and Charge Controllers
      4. Grid-Tied Battery-less Inverter
      5. Grid Tied Systems with Battery Inverters
      6. Standalone Inverters and Power Panels
      7. Charge Controllers (1/2)
      8. Charge Controllers (2/2)
      9. Energy Storage Device
      10. Lead-Acid Batteries
      11. Alkaline Batteries
    3. PV Balance of System Components
      1. Conductors
      2. Conduit and Raceway Systems
      3. Overcurrent Protection
      4. Switchgear
      5. Junction and Combiner Boxes
      6. Terminations and Connectors
    4. Chapter 6 Summary
    5. Key Concepts and Terms
    6. Chapter 6 Assessment
  14. Chapter 7 PV System Sizing Principles
    1. Sizing Standalone vs. utility-Interactive PV Systems
      1. Standalone System Sizing
      2. Utility-Connected System Sizing
    2. Estimating Peak Power Demand and Energy Consumption
    3. Derating Factors and System Losses
      1. Calculation Programs
      2. Time-Step Analysis Programs
      3. Simulation Systems
    4. Calculating the Effect of Derating on AC Power and Energy Production
    5. Calculating Array and Inverter Size for Grid-Connected Systems
      1. Array Sizing and Source Circuits
      2. Inverter Sizing
    6. Relationship Between the Array and Battery Size in Standalone Systems
    7. Chapter 7 Summary
    8. Key Concepts and Terms
    9. Chapter 7 Assessment
  15. Chapter 8 PV System Electrical Design
    1. One-Line Electrical Diagrams
      1. Standalone Systems
      2. Utility Interactive/Grid-Tied Systems
    2. PV Modules Configured in Series and Parallel
    3. Basic Properties of Electrical Conductors
    4. Module Nameplate Specification and Equipment Labeling
    5. Charge Control in Battery-Based PV Systems
    6. Electrical Equipment Labeling Requirements
      1. Photovoltaic Power Source Labels
      2. Multiple Power Systems
      3. Switch or Circuit Breaker
      4. General
    7. Basic Principles of PV Grounding
    8. Ohm’s Law and Conductor Properties
    9. Approval and Code-Compliance Requirements
    10. Article 690 of the National Electrical Code
    11. Chapter 8 Summary
    12. Key Concepts and Terms
    13. Chapter 8 Assessment
  16. Chapter 9 PV System Mechanical Design
    1. Solar Mounting Techniques (1/2)
    2. Solar Mounting Techniques (2/2)
    3. How Mounting Systems Affect Cell Operating Temperature
    4. BiPV Applications
    5. Weather-Sealing Materials
    6. Roofing Systems
      1. Sloping Roofs
      2. Flat Roofs
    7. Types and Magnitudes of Module Mechanical Loads
    8. How Mechanical Design Affects Installation and Maintenance
    9. Mechanical Design and Electrical and Thermal Performance
    10. Manufacturers’ Instructions and Installation Practices
    11. Chapter 9 Summary
    12. Key Concepts and Terms
    13. Chapter 9 Assessment
  17. Chapter 10 Performance Analysis, Maintenance, and Troubleshooting
    1. Typical System Design Errors
      1. Inspections
    2. Performance Problems
      1. Internal Faults
      2. External Faults
    3. Monitored Performance Parameters
    4. System Power Output Compared to Varying Factors
    5. Maintenance Requirements
    6. Safety Requirements for Different PV Systems
    7. Reliability Failures
    8. Manufacturer’s Instructions and Maintenance Plans
    9. Basic Troubleshooting Principles and Progression
    10. Chapter 10 Summary
    11. Key Concepts and Terms
    12. Chapter 10 Assessment
  18. Answer Key
  19. Glossary
  20. References
  21. Index (1/4)
  22. Index (2/4)
  23. Index (3/4)
  24. Index (4/4)

Product information

  • Title: Review Guide for the NABCEP Entry-Level Exam
  • Author(s): Balfour
  • Release date: December 2011
  • Publisher(s): Jones & Bartlett Learning
  • ISBN: 9781449624668