THIS CHAPTER EXAMINES PV module fundamentals in detail. It also
includes a discussion of the differences between PV cells, modules, panels,
and arrays. This chapter also contains electrical output parameter infor-
mation and an in-depth look at the effects on PV systems from different
Information is included on the components and construction of flat-
plate modules as well as how to determine the power output of PV mod-
ules. Bypass diodes are then discussed. The chapter concludes with a look
at how to maintain the safety and reliability of PV modules.
Topics & Concepts
This chapter covers the following topics and concepts:
Solar cells
PV cells, modules, panels, and arrays
Electrical output parameters for PV modules
Effects of varying incident solar irradiance and cell temperature on
module output
Operating point on the I-V curve
PV modules as battery chargers
Connecting similar and dissimilar PV modules
Performance rating and measurement conditions
Module measurement conditions
Solar-cell fabrication and manufacturing processes
Calculating efficiency
PV modules and limited current sources
Bypass diodes
Testing to ensure safety and reliability of PV modules
PV Module

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