The old way of working was to plan, prepare, and execute. We had the luxury of time. We could decide what course of action to take and what the outcomes could be, and then train folks to execute against it. Front-line workers were, largely, machines. The time-space-motion measurements that defined Taylorism (Taylor, 1911), looking for optimal mechanical performance, were the order of the day. Our training was for an Industrial Age, and optimal execution was key.
That world is gone. We now live in an era of continual change, with more ambiguous problems, shifting contexts, and unique situations. The ability to be more agile while maintaining resiliency is a necessity, and continual innovation is required. Organizations need ...