23Social movements, communication, and media

Elena Pavan and Donatella della Porta

The debate on the relationship between social movements and communication has been in general influenced by the specific types of media that were available for specific challengers in specific historical periods. If historians have pointed out the importance of the inventions of the printing press for the social movements of those times (Tarrow, 1994; Kielbowicz & Scherer, 1986), so the role of television has been looked at in the 1970s (Gitlin, 1980), and those of Fax in the 1990s (della Porta, 1996) and so on. At the beginning of the 21st century, with information and communications technologies going rapidly from “radical to routine” (Lievrouw & Livingstone, ...

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