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Safety Design for Space Systems by Tommaso Sgobba, Axel Larsen, Gary E. Musgrave Ph.D

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2.6.1. Introduction to the Thermal Environment

A spacecraft in proximity to a planet or a moon experiences natural environmental heating from three sources: the Sun; solar energy reflected from the planet, that is, albedo; and infrared energy emitted from the planet, that is, planetary infrared or outgoing long wave radiation. These environmental heating sources, in concert with orbital parameters, spacecraft attitude, and the design of the vehicle, determine the induced thermal environment and, hence, the thermal response of the spacecraft.
This section provides the reader with an introduction to the natural and induced thermal environments for orbiting spacecraft. Whereas the focus is primarily on Earth orbiting spacecraft, extensions to the ...

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