Chapter 10
By-Group Processing in SAS
Programs
Definition of BY-Group Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
References for BY-Group Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Definition of BY-Group Processing
BY-group processing is a method of processing observations from one or more data sets
so that the observations are grouped by common variable values. You can use BY-group
processing in both DATA and PROC steps.
The most common use of DATA step BY-group processing is to combine multiple SAS
data sets and use the BY statement with one of the following language elements:
SET statement
MERGE statement
MODIFY statement
UPDATE statement
When you create reports or summaries with SAS procedures, BY-group processing
enables you to group information in the output according to values of one or more
variables.
References for BY-Group Processing
For more information about BY-Group processing, see Chapter 22, “BY-Group
Processing in the DATA Step,” on page 459.
For information about how to use BY-group processing with SAS procedures, see
“Fundamental Concepts for Using Base SAS Procedures” in Base SAS Procedures
Guide and individual procedures in Base SAS Procedures Guide.
For information about using BY-group processing to combine information from
multiple SAS data sets, see Chapter 23, “Reading, Combining, and Modifying SAS
Data Sets,” on page 475. For even more extensive examples of BY-group processing,
see Combining and Modifying SAS Data Sets: Examples.
175
For information about the BY statement, see Statements in SAS DATA Step
Statements: Reference.
For information about how to use BY-group processing with other software products,
see the SAS documentation for those products.
176 Chapter 10 By-Group Processing in SAS Programs

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