SAS functions can be used in a `DATA`

statement to calculate new variables or as a part of a conditional statement. This appendix is more of a reference than a tutorial, but it does illustrate the use of a number of common functions in SAS. It is not an exhaustive list of functions, but it does include commonly used functions that are useful in manipulating data in the preparation for analysis. Some examples are provided for functions, whose use may not be apparent in a simple description. For a more extensive description of this material, please refer to the SAS documentation.

Here are some examples of how SAS functions are used:

```
DATA NEWDATA;SET OLDDATA;
TOTAL=SUM(A,B,C);
GENDER=UPCASE(SEX);
SQRAGE=SQRT(AGE);
RUN;
```

Note that in these cases, the function on the right side of the = sign does something to the argument(s) in the parentheses and returns a value, which is then assigned to the name on the left-hand side of the = sign.

The `SUM`

function returns the total of the variables `A`

, `B`

, and `C`

. The `SQRT`

function returns the square root of the `AGE`

variable. The `UPCASE`

function makes all character values in the `SEX`

variable uppercase. For example, if the `SEX`

variable contains the value `f`

, then the `GENDER`

variable will contain the value `F`

. The syntax for a function is

`NEWVARIABLE = FUNCTIONNAME(`*argument1, argument2… argumentk*);

where arguments can be constants, variables, expressions, or other functions. For functions that ...

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