Arslan Munir, Sanjay Ranka, and Ann Gordon-Ross
The word “embedded” literally means “within,” so embedded systems are information processing systems within (embedded into) other systems. In other words, an embedded system is a system that uses a computer to perform a specific task but is neither used nor perceived as a computer. Essentially, an embedded system is virtually any computing system other than a desktop computer. Embedded systems have links to physics and physical components, which distinguishes them from traditional desktop computing . Embedded systems possess a large number of common characteristics such as real-time constraints, dependability, and power/energy efficiency.
Embedded systems can be classified based on their functionality as transformational, reactive, or interactive . Transformational embedded systems take input data and transform the data into output data. Reactive embedded systems react continuously to their environment at the speed of the environment, whereas interactive embedded systems react with their environment at their own speed.
Embedded systems can be classified based on their orchestration/architecture as single-unit or multiunit embedded systems. Single-unit embedded systems refer to embedded systems that possess computational capabilities and interact with the physical world via sensors and actuators but are fabricated on a single chip and are ...