George Bosilca, Aurelien Bouteiller, Anthony Danalis, Thomas Herault, Piotr Luszczek, and Jack J. Dongara
Among the various factors that drive the momentous changes occurring in the design of microprocessors and high-end systems , three stand out as especially notable:
While the first two involve fundamental physical limitations that current technology trends are unlikely to overcome in the near term, the third is an obvious consequence of the first two, combined with the economic necessity of using many thousands of computational units to scale up to petascale and larger systems.
More transistors and slower clocks require multicore designs and an increased parallelism. The fundamental laws of traditional processor design—increasing transistor density, speeding up clock rate, lowering voltage—have now been stopped by a set of physical barriers: excess heat produced, too much power consumed, too much energy leaked, and useful signal overcome by noise. Multicore designs ...