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Scenic Art for the Theatre, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Now in its third edition, Scenic Art for the Theater: History, Tools and Techniques continues to be the most trusted source for both student and professional scenic artists. With new information on scenic design using Photoshop, Paint Shop Pro and other digital imaging software this test expands to offer the developing artist more step-by-step instruction and more practical techniques for work in the field. It goes beyond detailing job functions and discussing techniques to serve as a trouble-shooting guide for the scenic artist, providing practical advice for everyday solutions.

Table of Contents

  1. COVER
  2. Full Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Preface to The Third Edition
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Part One The Profession of Scenic Artistry
    1. Chapter 1 The Professional Scenic Artist
      1. The Professional Scenic Artist
        1. The Expectations of a Professional Scenic Artist
        2. The Scenic Artist’s Perception
      2. Training to Be a Scenic Artist
        1. American University Training Programs
        2. Specialized Schools or Programs
        3. Apprenticeships and Internships
      3. Working as a Scenic Artist
        1. American Labor Unions for Scenic Artists
          1. The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees
          2. United Scenic Artists
          3. International Labor Unions
        2. Employment Options for Scenic Artists
          1. Working at a Staff Position at a Scenic Studio or Theatre
          2. Freelance Work in a Major Market
          3. Freelance Work in the Film Industry
          4. Freelance Work in the Television Industry
          5. Freelance Work Outside of Major Markets
          6. Scene Painting Work Outside of Theatre and Film
        3. Contracting and Self-Employment Business Skills
          1. Establishing and Operating a Scenic Studio
      4. Interview With Joseph Forbes, President of Scenic Art Studios
    2. Chapter 2 The Scenic Artist’s Studio And Workspace
      1. The Scenic Studio
      2. The Scenic Painting Area
        1. Managing the Painting Space
        2. Scenic Painting Techniques and Shop Configuration
          1. The Eastern Style: Painting Vertically or “Up”
          2. The Continental Style: Painting Horizontally or “Down”
          3. Working in the Eastern Style
          4. Working in the Continental Style
          5. Lighting and Utilities in the Scenic Painting Area
          6. The Effects of Color Temperature
          7. Light Intensity
          8. Compressed Air and Fans
        3. Other Work Areas in the Paint Shop
          1. The Layout and Pounce Area
          2. The Office and Break Areas
      3. The Scenic Painting Preparation Area
        1. Paint Mixing
          1. Water and the Sink Area
        2. Paint Storage
        3. Storage of Brushes and Other Tools
        4. Storage of Flammable Products
      4. The Touch-Up Kit
      5. Safety and Health Regulations
        1. Hazard Communication Laws
        2. Respiratory Protection
        3. Protective Equipment
        4. Fall Protection
        5. Studio Building Hazards
          1. Fire Safety
          2. Emergency Exits and Escape Routes
          3. Changes in Elevation
          4. Electrical Safety
          5. Ventilation
          6. Bathroom Facilities
          7. Drinking Water
          8. Lead Paint
          9. Asbestos
          10. Waste and Toxic Chemicals
      6. Interview with Nancy Orr, Charge Painter of Showman Fabricators
    3. Chapter 3 The Scenic Artist and The Scenic Studio Personnel
      1. Types of Scenic Studios
      2. The Staff in a Scenic Studio
        1. The Scenic Designer
        2. The Production Manager and the Technical Director
        3. Production Shop Heads
          1. Paint, Props, and Scenery: A Team of Three Departments
          2. The Paint Department Staff
          3. The Charge Painter or Charge Person
          4. The Lead Painter
          5. The Assistant Scenic Painter or Journey Person
          6. Shop Assistants or Industrials
          7. Apprentices or Interns
      3. Paint Department Management
        1. Planning Scenic Painting
        2. Costing Out a Design
        3. Preproduction Planning
        4. Preparing Paint and Tool Stock
          1. Materials Estimation
          2. Preparing Materials Before Painting Begins
        5. Creating the Production Book
        6. Balancing Time, Space, and Labor
        7. Project Planning for the Independent Contractor
        8. Scheduling the Order of Painting with the Technical Director
        9. Setting the Production Schedule
          1. Special Construction Requirements for the Scenic Artist
      4. Putting a Production Together: Artistic Management and Organization
        1. Conveying Stylistic Information to the Paint Crew
        2. Managing Artistic Personnel
        3. Working with Other Painters
        4. Working with Other Production Departments
          1. The Costume Shop
          2. The Properties Shop
      5. Interview with Rachel Keebler, Co-Founder and Head of Cobalt Studios
    4. Chapter 4 The Relationship Between The Scenic Artist and The Scenic Designer
      1. Collaboration Between The Scenic Artist and The Scenic Designer
        1. The Scenic Artist Working with the Scenic Designer
        2. Information from the Scenic Designer to the Scenic Artist
          1. Paint Elevations and Scenic Models
          2. Scenic Drafting
          3. Digital Paint Elevations
          4. Paint Samples
          5. References and Research
      2. Preparing to Paint from The Elevation
        1. Studying and Preparing the Paint Elevations
          1. Light and the Paint Elevation
        2. Reading a Paint Elevation
        3. Talking with the Scenic Designer
      3. Interpreting The Scenic Designer’s Work
        1. Cross-Referencing Elevations and Drafting with the Built Scenery
        2. Enlarging the Design to Full Scale
          1. Scale
          2. Technique
          3. Character
        3. Making Samples
        4. Using the Scenic Designer’s Research
          1. When Research Takes the Place of an Elevation
          2. Copying Works of Art
          3. Understanding the Limitations of a Paint Elevation
      4. Working with The Scenic Designer in The Shop and on Stage
        1. Communicating with the Scenic Designer During the Painting Process
          1. Finishing Work on Stage
          2. Planning and Doing the Touch-Up
          3. Changes in the Theatre
      5. Extraordinary Challenges for The Scenic Artist
        1. Late Design and Lack of Design Information
        2. Tinkering
        3. Replacement of a Scenic Designer
      6. Interview with Scenic Designer Scott D. Pask and His Staff
      7. Interview with Scene Designer Anna Louizos and Her Staff
  8. Part Two The Tools of The Trade
    1. Chapter 5 The Painting Tools of Scenic Artistry
      1. Brushes
        1. The Anatomy of a Brush
          1. Brush Handles
          2. The Ferrule
          3. Paintbrush Bristles
          4. Brush Construction
          5. Procuring Brushes
        2. Maintaining Paintbrushes
          1. Repairing Brushes
        3. Types of Brushes
          1. The Names of Paintbrushes
          2. Common Brushes
          3. Scenic Painting Brushes
          4. Oval-Ferrule Brushes
          5. Round-Ferrule Brushes or Ring Liners
          6. Stippling Brushes
          7. Lettering Brushes
          8. Other Specialized Brushes
          9. Other Useful Brushes
        4. Where to Buy Brushes
      2. Brooms, Extensions, Rollers, and Other Painting Accessories
        1. Brooms
          1. Extensions
        2. Edgers
        3. Rollers
      3. Other Tools and Accessories for The Scenic Artist
        1. Stencils and Stamps
          1. Paint Stamps
      4. Texture Tools
        1. Sponges
        2. Rags
        3. Floggers
        4. Feathers
        5. Offbeat Tools
      5. Sprayers
        1. Garden and Pump Sprayers
        2. Aerosol Sprayers
        3. Pneumatic Sprayers
        4. High-Volume, Low-Pressure Sprayers
        5. Airbrushes
        6. Pressure Pot Sprayers
        7. Airless Sprayers
        8. Pattern Pistols and Hopper Guns
      6. Robert O. Moody is Interviewed by Susan Crabtree
    2. Chapter 6 Color and Paint
      1. Color Physics and Theory
        1. The Color Wheel and Color Model
        2. The Terminology of Color
          1. Terms that Define Color Interaction
      2. The Practice of Color Mixing
      3. The Scenic Art Palette
        1. The Elements of Paint
          1. Pigment
          2. The Vehicle
          3. The Binder
      4. The Types of Scenic Paints
        1. Dry Pigment
          1. Binders for Dry Pigments and Powdered Paints
        2. Modern Scenic Paint
          1. Paint Systems and Palettes
        3. Water-Based Scenic Paint
          1. Casein Paint
          2. Latex Paint
          3. Acrylic Paint
          4. Vinyl Paint
          5. Polymers
          6. Paint Compatibility
        4. Manufacturers of Modern Scenic Paints
        5. Black and White Paint
        6. Colorants and Universal Tinting Colors
      5. Dyes
        1. Aniline Dyes
          1. Hazards of Aniline Dye
          2. Working with Aniline Dyes
          3. Thickeners for Dyes
      6. Other Paints, Finishes, and Binders
        1. Water-Based Finishes
          1. Acrylic
          2. Latex
          3. Polyvinyl Acrylic
          4. Urethane
          5. Epoxy
        2. Solvent-Based Finishes
          1. Varnish
          2. Shellac
          3. Oils
          4. Lacquers
          5. Epoxy
        3. Solvent-Based Paints
          1. Alkyds
          2. Urethanes
          3. Lacquers
          4. Shellac
        4. Stains
          1. Solvent-Based Penetration Stains
          2. Oil-Based Stains
          3. Water-Based Stains
      7. Interview with Howard Jones, Resident Scenic Artist at The North Carolina School of The Arts
    3. Chapter 7 Preparing Soft Goods for Painting
      1. Working with Soft Goods
        1. Soft Goods Construction
          1. Standard Backdrop and Portal Construction
          2. Muslin
          3. Making a Drop
          4. Seamless Drops
          5. Scrim Construction
          6. Floorcloth Construction
        2. Working with Cut Drops and Netting
          1. Using Netting to Reinforce a Cut Drop
          2. Netting a Drop
      2. The Role of Flame Retardants with Soft Goods
        1. Flame Retardants
        2. Pretreated Flame-Retardant Fabrics
      3. Stretching and Priming Soft Goods
        1. Mounting Soft Goods for Sizing and Priming
          1. Working on a Deck
          2. Working on a Paint Frame
        2. Sizing and Priming Soft Goods
          1. Floating Soft Goods on a Deck
          2. Sizes and Primers
          3. Applying Size or Primer
          4. Problem Solving
          5. Sizing Translucent Drops
          6. Priming Scrims
          7. Priming Groundcloths
          8. Preparing China Silk
          9. Monk’s Cloth
      4. Interview with Jane Snow, United Scenic Artist Member, Based in New York City
    4. Chapter 8 Preparing Hard Scenery for Painting
      1. Working with Scenic Wall Units
        1. Preparing Hard-Covered Flats
        2. Preparing Soft-Covered Flats
        3. Dutchmen
        4. Preparing Floor Coverings
          1. Floor Sheet Stock
          2. Priming Sheet Stock for Floors
      2. Priming Wood
      3. Preparing and Priming Other Scenic Materials
        1. Preparing Noncellulosic Materials
          1. Plaster
          2. Priming and Sealing Metals
          3. Preparing Plastics and Foam Plastics
        2. Fabric Skins, Sculpture Coatings, and Other Preparations
          1. Smooth Sculpture Coatings
          2. Foam-Coating Materials
          3. Roof Patching
          4. Two-Part Resins
      4. Interview with Arnold Abramson, Master Scenic Artist
  9. Part Three Two-Dimensional Scenic Painting Techniques
    1. Chapter 9 Scenery Cartooning and Layout
      1. The Tools of Cartooning
        1. Measuring Tools
          1. Scale Rule
          2. Tape Measures
          3. Rulers and Square
        2. Drawing Tools for Cartooning
          1. Vine Charcoal
          2. Chalk
          3. Charcoal Holders
          4. Floggers and Compressed Air
          5. Ink Markers
          6. Dye
          7. Graphite
          8. Fixative
        3. Mechanical Drawing Tools
          1. Snap Lines
          2. Lining Sticks and Straight Edges
          3. Splines
          4. Compasses
          5. String
          6. Trammel Points and Bar Compasses
          7. Triangles and Templates
      2. Transferring a Cartoon or Repeating Pattern
        1. Using a Pounce
        2. The Transfer Screen
        3. Templates, Stencils, and Stamps
      3. Preparing Scenery for Cartooning
        1. Preparing the Design Information
          1. Paint Elevations
          2. The Scenic Model
        2. Preparing Hard Scenery for Cartooning
        3. Preparing Soft Goods for Cartooning
          1. Two Methods for Finding a Perpendicular Line
          2. Measuring the Drop
      4. Drawing The Cartoon
        1. Architectural Layout
        2. Using a Grid for Cartooning
        3. Perspective
          1. Atmospheric Perspective
          2. Linear Perspective
          3. The Principles of Linear Perspective
          4. The Method of Perspective
          5. Perspective for the Stage
          6. The Raked Stage and Traditional Wing and Drop Perspective
          7. Methods of Doing Linear Perspective in the Shop
          8. Perspective Problem Solving
        4. Using Projectors for Cartooning
        5. Using Geometry for Cartooning
          1. Constructing a Perpendicular Line
          2. Drawing Accurate Architectural Shapes
      5. Conclusion
      6. Interview with Robert Moody
    2. Chapter 10 Two-Dimensional Scenic Painting Techniques
      1. Putting a Production Together: The Painting
        1. Starting the Painting
          1. The Prime Coat
          2. Planning the Painting Process
          3. Details and Hard Scenery
          4. Soft Goods
      2. Base Painting Techniques
        1. Brushed Base Coat Techniques
          1. Base Painting Large Areas Without Leaving a Grain
          2. Creating a Grain Pattern in the Base Coat
          3. Cutting a Hard Line in a Base Coat
        2. Base Coating with a Sprayer
        3. Texture Base Painting Techniques
          1. Wet Blending
          2. Scumbling
          3. Base Coat Painting with a Roller
          4. Texturing with a Roller
      3. Overpainting Techniques
        1. Washes and Glazes
        2. Combing (Dry Brushing)
          1. The Tools and Paint for Combing
          2. Combing Techniques
          3. Strié
        3. Dry Brushing
        4. Graining and Veining
          1. Graining Techniques and Tools
          2. Graining Techniques for Wood
          3. Graining Techniques for Marble
        5. Lining
          1. Lining Brushes
        6. Sponging
          1. Sponge Technique
        7. Rag Rolling
        8. Flogging and Schlepitchka
          1. Tools and Paint of Schlepitchka and Flogging
        9. Spattering
          1. Spattering Technique and Tools
        10. Blocking
        11. Stippling
        12. Garden Sprayers
          1. Garden Spraying Techniques and Tools
        13. Pneumatic Sprayers
          1. Pneumatic Spraying Techniques and Tools
        14. Paint Stamps
          1. Stamp Registration
        15. Stencils and Templates
          1. What Tools to Use with Stencils
          2. Stencil Registration
        16. Templates and Spray Masking
          1. Spray Masking Using Particulates
          2. Spraying Patterns and Masking with Fabric
      4. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 11 Trompe L’Oeil Painting Technique
      1. Trompe L’Oeil Painting Technique
        1. The Theory of Practice of Trompe l’Oeil
          1. Color Theory of Trompe l’Oeil
          2. Shade
          3. Lowlight
          4. Highlights
          5. Cut Lines
          6. Cast Shadow
          7. Reflective or Bounce Light
          8. Application Techniques
        2. Finishing and Toning
    4. Chapter 12 Signs and Lettering
      1. Signs and Lettering
        1. Tools of Sign Painting
          1. Layout Tools
          2. Sign Painting Brushes
        2. Basic Fonts of Lettering
          1. Gothic Fonts
          2. Roman Fonts
          3. Script
        3. Rules and Techniques of Signage Layout
          1. General Layout
          2. Spacing
          3. Margins
          4. Layout on Transparent Surfaces
        4. Vinyl Lettering
          1. Adhering Vinyl Letters
        5. Reprographics
        6. Signage and Theatrical Design
    5. Chapter 13 A Pathway of Student Projects
      1. Considerations of Scenic Art Courses
        1. Project Scale and Class Time
        2. Drawing
        3. Practical Considerations
        4. Infrastructure and Equipment
        5. Class Project Renderings
      2. A Selection of Class Projects
        1. Foundation Projects, Working with Opaque Paint
          1. The Cornice Project
          2. “Trompe l’Oeil Scene Painting Made Simple”
          3. Pedestal and Urn Project
          4. Arch and Urn Project
          5. Gold Cartouche
        2. Organic and Atmospheric Projects, Varied Techniques, and Transparent Medium
          1. Painting a Landscape Without Brushes
          2. Forest Project
          3. Robert O. Moody Landscape Demonstration
          4. The City Wall: A Disney-Inspired Translucent Project
          5. Translucencies: Student’s Choice
        3. Reproductions: Old Master’s and Photographic
          1. Portrait Painting
          2. Old Master’s Still-Life Paintings
          3. The Bistre Process
          4. Bistre and Old Master’s Reproduction
          5. Photorealistic Reproduction, Glass Projects
          6. Spray Projects, Photorealistic Faces
      3. Conclusion
    6. Chapter 14 Three-Dimensional Textures
      1. The Tools and Materials of Texturing
        1. Texture Mediums
          1. Paint Thickeners
          2. Drywall Treatments
        2. Adhesives for Texture Mediums
          1. Polymer Glues and Theatrical Coatings
          2. Contact Cement
          3. Rubber Latex
          4. Tile Adhesive
          5. Roof Coatings
        3. Texture Compound Additives
          1. Clay
          2. Sand
          3. Perlite
          4. Vermiculite
          5. Mulch
        4. Texture Tools
        5. Paper and Fabric Textures
          1. Cellulose
          2. Fabric
          3. Binders for Papier-Mâché
        6. Texture Stencils
      2. Painting on Miscellaneous Materials
        1. Substitute Glass and Plexiglas®
          1. Using Caulk on Plexiglas for Texture
        2. Metal
        3. Foam Rubber
        4. Carpeting
        5. Upholstery
        6. Dried Plants
      3. Wallpaper
        1. Conventional Wallpaper
        2. Raised Pattern Paper
        3. Laminate Papers
      4. Conclusion
    7. Chapter 15 Surface Transformation: Faux Finishes, Aging Techniques, and Surface Finishing
      1. Faux Finish Techniques and Materials
      2. The Layering Process: Glazes and Resists
        1. Glazes with Pigment or Dye and Finish Mediums
        2. Finishes
        3. Resists
      3. Creating Faux Finishes
        1. Wood
          1. Wood Graining
        2. Marble
        3. Metal
          1. Gilding
          2. Bronzing Powders and Mica Flake Metallic Pigment
          3. Graphite
        4. Imitating Commercial Decorative Materials
          1. Linoleum Flooring
          2. Plastic Laminates and Ceramic Tile
      4. Surface Enhancement with Glazing and Staining
        1. Glaze Tints and Mediums
        2. Stains
      5. Aging Techniques and Mediums
        1. Paint
        2. Peeling and Cracked Paint
          1. Sodium Silicate
          2. Glue Base
          3. Boarding
        3. Aging Wood
          1. Wood Pickling
        4. Wood and Metal Patinas
          1. Oxidizing Patina Mediums
          2. Rust
        5. Distressing
          1. Fabrics
        6. Dirt and Soot
          1. Asphaltum
      6. Conclusion
  10. Index