Chapter 1


1. Grenville Papers, Mss. Eur. E. 309, Box 2, India Office Collection (hereafter IOC), British Library, London.

2. J.D. Herbert, ‘Report of the Mineralogical Survey of the Himalayan Mountains’, Home, Misc. No. 437 A, 1826, p. 69, National Archives of India (hereafter NAI), Delhi.

3. Ibid., p. 535.

4. Home, Public, No. 23, 26 July 1804, NAI. For instances of Buchanan's difficulties, his dispatches and circulars, see also Home, Public, No. 118, 7 February 1805, and Home, Public, No. 54, 27 May 1808, NAI.

5. For details, see Chakrabarti, Western Science in Modern India.

6. Grove, Green Imperialism.

7. Kumar, Science and the Raj.

8. All of them had twin purposes—the gratification of enlightened curiosity as well as the more ‘utility-oriented’ ...

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