30 Underwater photography

30.1 Environmental considerations

30.1.1 Introduction

Many subjects have to be recorded when immersed in a liquid medium, usually water. Various examples may be listed briefly. Subjects at shallow depths include specimens for microscopy which require suitably corrected objectives (see Section 13.3), aquatic life in ponds and rivers, and radioactive nuclear fuel items in cooling ponds and the inspection of wells and sewers. Photogrammetry may be used to survey wrecks and changes in the seabed. A periscopic optical system can provide an in-water viewpoint for an external camera. A useful short chronology of the development of underwater photography is given by Howarth (1986) and a bibliography by Eastman Kodak (1972). ...

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