I started writing this book in 1997; it was originally due to the publisher by April 1998. I eventually delivered it in April 2000, two years late. I have never before missed a publication deadline: books, articles, or essays. I pride myself on timeliness: A piece of writing is finished when it's due, not when it's done.

This book was different. I got two-thirds of the way through the book without giving the reader any hope at all. And it was about then I realized that I didn't have the hope to give. I had reached the limitations of what I thought security technology could do. I had to hide the manuscript away for over a year; it was too depressing to work on.

During the early months of 1999, I also became disillusioned by my consulting practice. Counterpane Systems had been providing cryptography and computer-security consulting for several years, and business was booming. Most of our work was design and analysis. A company would come to us with a security problem, and we would design a system that was secure given the threats. Or a company would come to us with an already designed system that purported to be secure against a list of threats, and we would poke holes in the solution and then fix them. We could invoice as many hours as we could stay awake. The only problem was that our beautiful designs were being broken in the real world. Beautiful cryptography was regularly compromised through bad implementations. Carefully tested implementations were being broken through ...

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