In this chapter we provide taxonomy for both security attacks and attackers. First, security attacks are categorized and examples of attack scenarios are given. Different types of attacker with various motives can carry out the same type of attack. Defense mechanisms may need to be sensitive not only to the type of attack but also the type of attacker. Therefore, attackers are also classified and their motives are explained at the end of the chapter.
Security attacks can be categorized into two broad classes: passive and active attacks. Passive attacks, where adversaries do not make any emissions, are mainly against data confidentiality. In active attacks, malicious acts are carried out not only against data confidentiality but also data integrity. Active attacks can also aim for unauthorized access and usage of the resources or the disturbance of an opponent's communications. An active attacker makes an emission or action that can be detected.
Apart from security attacks, needlessness is also an important security threat. By mistake, users can expose nodes to threats like tampering and destruction, and classified data and resources to unauthorized access. Security and fault-tolerance schemes should also tackle the security and safety challenges created by careless use or unpredicted events.
Before we examine passive attacks, please note that RF is not the only wireless medium. There ...