increasingly difficult obstacles in the adversary’s path is “defense-in-depth.” Military
organizations have employed this concept for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. IT
security folks do this today, even though their terminology may be different.
3. Deterrence occurs and is the basis for Beccaria’s theories on general and specific
deterrence as well as Rational Choice Theory. Unfortunately deterrence is difficult
to measure. A prudent approach is to bundle protective measures together and add
new ones to increase the probability of deterrence. Each measure has some deterrent
value but how much is often a guess. Layered defenses providing an accumulation of
deterrence is the prudent course of action.
4. Crime reduction measures have a life span of effectiveness. Initially a crime reduction
measure will make the crime rate drop. After a period of time the rate will increase.
It does not, however, reach the level it had before the intervention was implemented.
Crime is fluid and so protective measures must also be fluid. Periodic modification
based on continuous assessment is a necessity. One must have metrics for determining
the effectiveness of crime reduction measures.
5. Protective measures are best employed when they address multiple issues. Closed
Circuit Television Equipment (CCTV) may detect and deter and provide an
investigative aid for robbery attacks. It may also help manage other types of criminal
activity, ranging from shoplifting to terrorism. Lighting may deter some criminals; it
also enhances safety. Maintaining a standoff zone in a parking lot protects against
vehicle-borne explosives; it may also impede access to dumpsters by employees who
have secreted items there for later retrieval.
6. Crime prevention/security research is usually lacking. Advice is given without
validation. One means of correcting this is to use international sources. Policing
and crime prevention have a much richer history in the United Kingdom than in the
United States. Studying what other countries have done provides a more holistic
understanding of the crime risk phenomena.
Community Considerations
Each “community” that is being protected has different needs and characteristics. There are
cultural, demographic, and budgetary factors that must be taken into account before any
reasonable protection plans can be implemented. Knowing the “community” then is of para-
mount importance.
Whether called community watch, citizen alert, business watch, neighborhood watch,
or block watch, the idea is the same—neighbors watching out for each other. The concept
involves developing a crime prevention program in which citizens work with each other and
with local protection agencies to reduce crime and vandalism in their community. One varia-
tion of this is “corporate crime watch” or “business watch.” Such programs can be useful in
detecting traveling criminal groups such as professional shoplifters or con artists. They may
also help to spot terrorists conducting surveillance or in the location of lost persons (children
or senior citizens).
Criminals gravitate to places where they feel safe and secure. They stay out of neighbor-
hoods where they are likely to get caught. The goal of community watch programs is to make
criminals aware that their activities are being watched and will be reported to the police. In
neighborhoods where people watch after each other, burglary rates are lower.
Participation in a community watch program does not require a great deal of time.
However, it does require you to become slightly more observant in your daily routine and
maintain open lines of communication with your neighbors and with local law enforcement.
If everyone participates, a community watch can work to reduce crime and make your neigh-
borhood a safer place to live. Having signage indicating the presence of a community watch,
“Block Watch,” or other similar program bundles the deterrence measures together and
increases their effectiveness.
Crime Free Multihousing is another variation of community crime prevention. It
originated in Mesa, Arizona, and uses a neighborhood watch program within multihousing
Community Considerations 455

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