Seeing Double is a collection of over 200 illustrations, each of which can be seen as having at least two different meanings or representations—but—not at the same time! These illustrations have been developed by psychologists, graphic artists, and fine artists. Some are centuries old, while many others are contemporary.

Several different methods have been used to produce these figures. The chapters of Seeing Double are roughly organized according to these methods, although one could argue that in some cases a particular figure should be included in a different chapter. Some of the “different” chapters are largely variations on other chapters.

A “Figure-Ground Illusion” (so called by psychologists) is one way to produce more than ...

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