Our class is approaching the end. Our professors are very anxious to summarize the important points so that the knowledge gained during this class will benefit the students for a lifetime.

Mo asks to tell us a story he saw on the Internet: “Aristotle (384–322 BC) raised the question of whether the chicken comes first or the egg comes first and concluded that both must have always existed. Thurman and Fisher (1988) tried to answer the question by performing a test using data on chickens that lay eggs except for commercial broilers and on eggs produced in the United States from 1930 to 1983. They found that the egg comes first.” He then asks, “Does that mean that the egg causes the chicken to come into existence?”

Dr. Theo ...

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