N.A. Hoult, Queen’s University, Canada
K. Soga, University of Cambridge, UK
This chapter introduces the most common sensors used for the monitoring of tunnels. It is divided into sections that cover typical tunnel monitoring applications: (i) construction in soft ground; (ii) construction in rock; and (iii) in-service and long-term monitoring. A case study is used for each application to illustrate the use of both common and newly developed sensing technologies in tunnel monitoring. The chapter concludes with a summary of the sensors discussed, future trends in sensing for tunnels and useful references.
monitoring; tunnelling; soft ground; rock; sensors; displacements; ...