Let us start this chapter with a definition of computational engineering: it is a discipline that involves computer science being applied to natural language. This includes many professions related to translation, terminology, text search, opinion search, corpus work and search engine work.
When we talk about computational engineering, we often associate it with the field of natural language processing (NLP). If NLP were to be defined, we could say NLP is a field that combines linguists and computer scientists.
A dual skill is required, as NLP is based on both linguistic and computer skills. There are also formalisms, which are representations of information and knowledge in machine-readable formats (scripting languages, command lines, etc.) and which are very important to take into account.
6.1. Semantic ontologies
In computational engineering, ontologies are graphs that represent semantic relationships between concepts and themes.
An ontology is the structured set of terms and concepts representing the meaning of an information field, whether through the metadata of a namespace or through the elements of a knowledge domain.
Ontology itself is a data model that represents a set of concepts in a field, as well as the relationships between them.
Figure 6.1 provides an example of an ontology in the mountain bike field.