Abstract

Unsettled times can arise from a variety of causes, including environmental (e.g., earthquake), climatic (e.g., floods), economic (e.g., recession), social (e.g., illness), or political (e.g., civil unrest). They can result in citizens’ loss of homes/possessions, jobs, health, or mobility. Citizens move from above the level of consumption adequacy, where their behaviors reflect long-term and higher-order needs, to below the level of consumption adequacy, where they are forced into a short-term focus on simple existence. In parallel, (service) organizations—utilities, transport, medical, cleaning, housing, education, broadcasting, national and local government—may become ineffective or unavailable: in other words, beyond the means of ...

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