Unsettled times can arise from a variety of causes, including environmental (e.g., earthquake), climatic (e.g., floods), economic (e.g., recession), social (e.g., illness), or political (e.g., civil unrest). They can result in citizens’ loss of homes/possessions, jobs, health, or mobility. Citizens move from above the level of consumption adequacy, where their behaviors reflect long-term and higher-order needs, to below the level of consumption adequacy, where they are forced into a short-term focus on simple existence. In parallel, (service) organizations—utilities, transport, medical, cleaning, housing, education, broadcasting, national and local government—may become ineffective or unavailable: in other words, beyond the means of ...

Get Service and Service Systems now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from nearly 200 publishers.