Everything communicates something about a firm and its offerings – regardless of whether the marketer takes this into account and acts upon it or not.


This chapter addresses the issue of marketing communication and demonstrates the need for a total communication or integrated marketing communications approach where communication messages from a number of different sources are integrated. The communication circle concept is described, and the impact of various time horizons on the effects of marketing communication campaigns is analysed. Some guidelines for managing marketing communications in service are also presented. In the final sections of the chapter we discuss the relationship dialogue concept and how total integrated marketing communication and relationship marketing relate to each other. A relationship communication model is presented, where communication messages sent by a firm are considered facilitators of the customers’ creation of meaning out of these messages. After having read the chapter the reader should understand the importance of taking a holistic approach to marketing communication and know how to integrate communication activities of different natures; planned, as well as product and service, and unplanned, messages. The reader should also understand how marketing communication has an impact on several target groups and on several levels along a time span. ...

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