8 Design Considerations of images M Subcircuits

Once the modulator has been verified using macromodels and the performance has been evaluated while considering the main nonideal circuit and physical effects (including circuit noise), the next step is the electrical transistor‐level design of the images M building blocks and circuit elements. This chapter moves down to the transistor‐level implementation, and focuses on the essential circuit elements that constitute the main building blocks of images Ms. Design considerations concerning these circuits are described, together with the practical simulation test benches that are frequently used for characterizing their main electrical performance metrics, as derived from system‐level behavioral simulations.

In this book, we will distinguish between two different categories of images M building blocks or subcircuits. The first category, referred to as basic building blocks, includes the loop filter (essentially based on integrators and resonators) and the embedded quantizer, made up of an ADC (usually a flash ADC made of a bank of comparators) and a DAC. ...

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