13  Wavenumber and Bearing Estimation

In this chapter, we examine the fundamental techniques of measuring the spatial aspects of waves which can be propagated in a reflection free space from a distant source, reverberating in a confined space, or represent the complicated radiation in the nearfield of one or more sources. The types of wave of interest could be either mechanical (seismic, structural vibration, etc.), acoustic (waves in fluids), or electromagnetic. When the source of the waves is distant from the receiver array we can say that the wavefront is planar and the receiving array of sensors can estimate the direction of arrival, or bearing. This technique is fundamental to all passive and active sonar and radar systems for measuring ...

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