Nanoscience and nanotechnology are a recent development. At
the moment, the research on nanoscale materials science for
nanotechnology is ubiquitous. Much has been accomplished in
the processing of nanoscale materials, such as growth of silicon
nanowires, as well as in the study of physical and device properties
of silicon nanowires. Although the research has not reached a stage
where nanotechnology can be called mature and mass production of
nanodevices can be done, it is time to have a critical review of what has
been done and what is the direction and potential of nanotechnology
research in the near future. This is the purpose of this book, and it is
limited to the processing, properties, and applications of nanowires
example, is the large-scale integration of nanowires. We can handle
a few pieces of nanowires easily, but it is not at all trivial if we have
to handle a million of them. Nevertheless, maybe it is realistic to
number of nanowires, such as in biosensor devices.
chapter by Kodambaka reviews the in situ transmission electron
microscopy (TEM) observations of vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) growth
of silicon nanowires. The direct observations of dynamic growth
phenomena of Si nanowires help identify the key parameters
in controlling the morphological and structural evolution of
The second chapter by Dayeh and Picraux reviews the growth of
coaxial as well as radial direction growth of Ge/Si heterostructured
growth, defect formation during growth, and the growth mechanism
small size on VLS growth and the critical radius for suppressing the
The third chapter by Higgins, Schmitt, and Jin is a review on the
synthesis of metal silicide nanowires. Due to the complex multiphase
behavior of silicide formation, the synthesis of silicide nanowires via
chemical methods is rather complicated. Several synthetic strategies
have been developed to overcome this challenge. This chapter
highlights the strategies of current approaches, the future synthetic
challenges, and a review of the emerging applications.
The fourth chapter by Chen and Wu is to reviews the formation
of nano-silicide phases on Si substrates as well as in Si nanowires.
The microstructures and the epitaxial interfaces between Si and a
large number of silicides of near-noble and transition metals have
been studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy
(HRTEM), and lattice images are presented and reviewed. Controlled
growth of nano-heterostructures of silicide/Si/silicide such as NiSi/
Si/NiSi and PtSi/Si/PtSi are given.
contact reaction–induced epitaxial growth of Ni and Co silicides
in Si nanowires. In this chapter, events of repeating homogeneous
nucleation have been observed. Historically, on analyzing repeating
homogeneous nucleation, it was found that it cannot explain the
rapid rate of bulk single-crystal growth during the melting process.
Thus, F. C. Frank’s model of spiral crystal growth around a screw
dislocation was invented. This model was used to observe repeating
homogeneous nucleation in nanowires, and it enabled to directly
compare theoretical and experimental studies on nucleation.
The sixth chapter by Gusak and Zaporozhers is a review on the
in hollow nanoshells and nanotubes. Owing to the two surfaces in
The kinetic analysis presented in this chapter is an example of the
current active study of kinetic processes in nanoscale materials.
The seventh chapter by Seike and Ohdomari is a review on
electrical transport properties of doped Si nanowires under
strain. It presents a comprehensive study directed toward a
better understanding of electron and hole transport in n-type and
complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (nano-CMOS) circuits
and systems, for example, in 32 nm process node, and hopefully
to extend it into the 10 nm process node regime. In this nanoscale
regime, stress plays the most important role in carrier transport.