Chapter 1Cyber–Physical Systems in Smart Cities – Mastering Technological, Economic, and Social Challenges

Martina Fromhold-Eisebith

Department of Geography, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany


  • To broaden readers' understanding of the process fields of smart city development that can profit from enhanced information and communication technologies
  • To explore in which respects cyber–physical systems (CPSs) may help in improving the coordinated control, regulation, and monitoring of different smart city processes, supporting sustainability objectives
  • To introduce geographical perspectives into the debate on technology-driven smart city development, highlighting place-specific dynamics as well as upper-scale national and global influences on localized economic processes
  • To point out risks and caveats that influence the societal acceptance of technology-driven smart city development and need to be regarded in related policies.

1.1 Introduction

The “smart city” notion has become synonymous with visions of future urban development, which is marked by the widespread digitization of services [1–4]. A major objective of smart cities is to achieve triple sustainability in ...

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