© The Author(s), under exclusive license to APress Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021
A. KhamisSmart Mobilityhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-7101-8_3

3. Smart Mobility: Foundational Technologies

Alaa Khamis1  
Courtice, ON, Canada

Foundational technologies represent smart mobility’s building blocks that can be used to effectively develop and underpin important new products and services. Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT), Geographic Information System (GIS), wireless communication, mobile cloud computing, blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and electrification are discussed in this chapter as examples of foundational technologies for smart mobility systems and services.

3.1 PNT and GIS

Positioning, ...

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