      in good soware engineering.
Measurement is used to assess situations, track progress, evaluate eec-
tiveness, and more. But the gap between how we do measure and how we
could measure remains larger than it should be. A key reason for this gap
between potential and practice was the lack of a coordinated, comprehen-
sive framework for understanding and using measurement. e rigorous
measurement framework introduced by the highly successful rst edition
of Soware Metrics: A Rigorous Approach in 1991 and second edition of
Soware Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach in 1997 has helped
to advance the role of measurement by inspiring discussion of important
issues, explaining essential concepts, and suggesting new approaches for
tackling long-standing problems.
As one of the rst texts on soware metrics, the rst edition broke new
ground by introducing soware engineers to measurement theory, graph-
theoretic concepts, and new approaches to soware reliability. e second
edition added material on practical applications and expanded the frame-
work to include notions of process visibility and goal-directed measure-
ment. e new third edition reects the great progress in the development
and use of soware metrics over the past decades. is progress includes
the acceptance of quantitative analysis and empirical evaluation of so-
ware development methods in both research and practice. We have seen
the emergence of numerous research journals and conferences that focus
on quantitative and empirical methods applied to soware engineering
problems. e SEI Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) for
development, which relies on metrics, is now commonly used to evaluate
the maturity of development organizations.
is third edition contains new material relevant to object-oriented
design, design patterns, model-driven development, and agile develop-
ment processes. Of particular note is the new chapter on causal models
xviii Preface
and Bayesian networks and their application to soware engineering. e
text also includes references to recent soware metrics activities, includ-
ing research results, industrial case studies, and standards. Along with the
new material, the book contains numerous examples and exercises, and
thus continues to provide an accessible and comprehensive introduction
to soware metrics.
is book is designed to suit several audiences. It is structured as the
primary textbook for an academic or industrial course on soware met-
rics and quality assurance. But it is also a useful supplement for any course
in soware engineering. Because of its breadth, the book is a major refer-
ence book for academics and practitioners, as it makes accessible impor-
tant and interesting results that have appeared only in research-oriented
publications. Researchers in soware metrics will nd special interest in
the material reporting new results, and in the extensive bibliography of
measurement-related information. Finally, the book oers help to soware
managers and developers who seek guidance on establishing or expanding
a measurement program; they can focus on the practical guidelines for
selecting metrics and planning their use.
e book is arranged in two parts. Part I oers the reader a basic under-
standing of why and how we measure. It examines and explains the fun-
damentals of measurement, experimentation, and data collection and
analysis. Part II explores soware engineering measurement in greater
detail, with comprehensive information about a range of specic metrics
and their uses, illustrated by many examples and case studies. e book
also includes a bibliography and answers to selected exercises from the
main chapters.

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