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Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering by P. Purushothama Raj

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1

Soil Formation and Composition

CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS

Origin of soils – Types of rocks – Effects of weathering – Soil formation – Major soil deposits of India – Components of soils – Size and shape of soil particles – Inter-particle forces – Soil minerals – Soil–water system – Soil structure

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Soil is an unconsolidated material that has resulted from the disintegration of rocks. It includes sediments and deposits beneath rivers and seas and on land along with all organic and inorganic materials overlying the bedrock. It, thus, constitutes the earth's surface both on land and beneath water.

The type and characteristics of soil depend largely on its origin. Transportation causes the sizes and shapes of the particles to alter and ...

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