Gravity-type retaining walls: proportioning, earth pressure consideration, stability requirements, backfill materials and drainage, joints – Sheet pile walls: cantilever types, anchored types, wales, tie-rods and anchorages – Braced excavations: earth pressure distribution, heave and stability
In Chapter 11, the two basic earth pressure theories were discussed at length. These theories are applied to the design of earth-retaining structures. In general, earth-retaining structures are constructed when abrupt changes in the ground surface elevation are needed to protect unstable slopes. The typical structures are various types of retaining walls, sheet piles, braced sheeting ...