Dye-sensitized Solar Cells
The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), shown schematically in Figure 7.1, is the newest photovoltaic device configuration. First developed by O’Reagan and Grätzel in 1991,1 this class of cell has reached efficiencies of over 11%.2 The basic structure of a DSSC involves a transparent (wide-band-gap) n-type semiconductor configured optimally in a nano-scale network of columns, touching nanoparticles, or coral-like protrusions. The surface area of the network is designed to be huge, and it is covered everywhere with a monolayer of a dye or a coating of quantum dots, which functions as the dye. We will henceforth refer to either as the dye sensitizer. The dye sensitizer is the absorber. An ...