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Solar Energy Engineering by Soteris A. Kalogirou

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Chapter nine

Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaic (PV) modules are solid-state devices that convert sunlight, the most abundant energy source on the planet, directly into electricity without an intervening heat engine or rotating equipment. PV equipment has no moving parts and, as a result, requires minimal maintenance and has a long life. It generates electricity without producing emissions of greenhouse or any other gases and its operation is virtually silent. Photovoltaic systems can be built in virtually any size, ranging from milliwatt to megawatt, and the systems are modular, i.e., more panels can be easily added to increase output. Photovoltaic systems are highly reliable and require little maintenance. They can also be set up as stand-alone ...

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