Although a variety of networking models have been developed over the years, most of the commercially available networks use one of the following models:
The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model
The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model
The OSI network model developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) consists of seven layers of services. Each layer is responsible for handling a different aspect of network communication.
When sending data, each layer performs its processing on the data and passes it to the next lower layer. When receiving data, each layer performs its processing on the data and passes it to the next higher layer.
This layered ...