Although a variety of networking models have been developed over the years, most of the commercially available networks use one of the two following models:
The Open System Interconnection (OSI) model
The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model
Of these two, TCP/IP is the predominate model.
The OSI network model developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) consists of seven layers of services. Each layer is responsible for handling a different aspect of network communication.
When sending data, each layer performs its processing on the data and passes it to the next lower layer. When receiving data, each layer performs its processing on the data ...