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Solid State Physics by R. J. Singh

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Chapter 2

Crystal Structure Determination

2.1 X-RAY DIFFRACTION

In the past, people studied crystals through their geometry, that is, measurement of angles between crystal faces and thus, they established the symmetry of the crystals. This kind of study was carried out with the help of a goniometer. However, the internal structure of the crystals could not be revealed. Then, people started using optical microscopes (with different modifications) that also could not reveal the internal structure of crystals, but this technique proved to be very useful for studying different aspects of biological samples. Then, people tried diffraction of electromagnetic waves through the specimen, and the method of getting information about the structure of the ...

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