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Solid State Physics by R. J. Singh

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Chapter 13

Superconductivity

13.1 SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

Resistivities (ρ) of metals show temperature dependence. This dependence is of a different nature in different temperature regions. In the room temperature region ρ T, in the intermediate temperature region ρT3, in the low-temperature region ρ T5 and at still lower temperatures, ρ becomes independent of temperature or becomes a constant. This constant resistivity is called the residual resistivity and is attributed to the impurities or defects in the crystal. This was the state of information when temperature below 77 K (liquid nitrogen) was not achievable. In 1908, Kamerlingh Onnes for the first time liquefied helium and opened the way to perform experiments up to the temperature of ...

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