This appendix presents the basic linear algebra operations. They’re important for understanding much of the math behind most machine-learning algorithms. In case you skipped your linear algebra classes, this is your chance to come to grips with it.

A *matrix* is a set of elements arranged in rows and columns (we’ll only use matrices whose elements are numbers). This is a matrix
with two rows and three columns, so it’s called a 2 × 3 matrix:

Usually, the number of rows in a matrix is denoted by the letter *m* and the number of columns by the letter *n*. *m* and *n* are the matrix’s dimensions, ...

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