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Sports Turf by V.I. Stewart

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Grooming, verti-cutting, hollow-tine coring, and verti-draining as aids in fine-turf management for golf and bowls

These are procedures aimed at counteracting inevitable trends towards mat development and soil compaction which are inherent in a soil deprived of earthworm activity. They should be looked upon, not as alternatives, but as a combination of treatments which together can be used by the greenkeeper to maintain the surface fit for play.

F.1 Terminology

This subject is confused by the fact that, where earthworms are absent from the soil, very similar organic-rich surface conditions can arise in forest, pasture or sports turf, but their common origin has not been generally recognized. This is a pity, because all concerned could benefit ...

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