O'Reilly logo

SQL Cookbook by Anthony Molinaro

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Chapter 13. Hierarchical Queries

This chapter introduces recipes for expressing hierarchical relationships that you may have in your data. It is typical when working with hierarchical data to have more difficulty retrieving and displaying the data (as a hierarchy) than storing it. This is particularly true because of the inflexibility of SQL (SQL’s nonrecursive nature). When working with hierarchical queries, it is absolutely crucial that you take advantage of what your RDBMS supplies you to facilitate these operations; otherwise you will end up writing potentially less efficient queries and constructing convoluted data models to deal with the hierarchical data. For PostgreSQL users, the recursive WITH clause will most likely be added to later versions PostgreSQL, so it would behoove you to pay attention to the DB2 solutions to these queries.

This chapter will provide recipes to help you unravel the hierarchical structure of your data by taking advantage of the functions supplied by each of the RDBMSs. Before starting, examine table EMP and the hierarchical relationship between EMPNO and MGR:

	select empno,mgr
	  from emp
	order by 2

	     EMPNO        MGR
	---------- ----------
	      7788       7566
	      7902       7566
	      7499       7698
	      7521       7698
	      7900       7698
	      7844       7698
	      7654       7698
	      7934       7782
	      7876       7788
	      7566       7839
	      7782       7839
	      7698       7839
	      7369       7902
	      7839

If you look carefully, you will see that each value for MGR is also an EMPNO, meaning the manager of each employee in table EMP is also an employee in table EMP and not stored somewhere else. ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required