The Startup Community Way1 by Brad Feld and Ian Hathaway shows how startup communities are complex, adaptable systems. A system is any group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent components that form a unified whole. Any stimulus on a complex, adaptable system produces unpredictable effects because its parts move and react to the stimulus in ways that are beyond our current modeling ability.

The book The Rainforest2 by Victor W. Huang and Greg Horowitt has a similar thesis: entrepreneurial ecosystems are highly interconnected and complex systems, where the equilibrium between different actors and actions can be hard ...

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